Dry farming, also known as dryland farming or dryland agriculture, is an agricultural practice used in regions with limited or irregular rainfall, where water availability is a significant constraint for crop cultivation. Dry farming techniques are designed to maximize the efficient use of available moisture, reduce water loss, and ensure crop survival and productivity despite challenging arid or semi-arid conditions.

Crop Selection:
Dry farming typically involves the cultivation of crops that are well-suited to arid conditions, such as drought-resistant varieties of grains (wheat, barley, sorghum), legumes (chickpeas, lentils), and other dryland-adapted crops.

Moisture Conservation:
One of the central principles of dry farming is soil moisture conservation. Farmers use techniques like deep plowing, subsoiling, and soil conditioning to break up compacted soil layers and improve water infiltration.

Conservation Tillage:
Reduced tillage or no-till practices are commonly used in dry farming to minimize soil disturbance and reduce evaporation, which helps retain soil moisture.

Crop Rotation:
Crop rotation is an essential practice in dry farming to prevent soil degradation, manage pest and disease pressures, and improve soil fertility. Diverse crop rotations also help utilize moisture at different soil depths.

Mulching involves covering the soil surface with organic materials (e.g., straw, compost, or crop residues) to reduce evaporation, suppress weeds, and maintain soil moisture.

Rainfall Timing:
Dry farmers carefully time their planting to coincide with the arrival of rainfall. This ensures that seeds have the best chance of germination and early growth with available moisture.

Water-Efficient Irrigation:
In some dry farming regions, limited irrigation may be used to supplement rainfall. Water-efficient irrigation methods, such as drip irrigation or furrow irrigation, are employed to minimize water wastage.

Drought-Tolerant Crop Varieties:
Farmers select crop varieties bred for drought tolerance and adapted to the specific climatic conditions of their region.

Soil Management:
Improving soil health through practices like organic matter addition, crop residues incorporation, and the use of cover crops helps increase soil water-holding capacity.

Yield Expectations:
Dry farming typically yields lower crop quantities compared to irrigated agriculture. Farmers must set realistic yield expectations and prioritize the use of limited water resources.

Some dry farmers diversify their agricultural activities by incorporating livestock or agroforestry components to enhance overall farm resilience and sustainability.

Risk Management:
Dry farming is inherently risky due to its dependence on variable rainfall. Farmers may employ risk-reduction strategies, such as crop insurance or drought contingency plans.